Shimelis ArayaNovember 1, 202142

One of the major issues in international hydro-politics is the utilization of transboundary rivers. Although there are existing theories on the use of these bodies of water, they were not universally used in a uniform way. Accordingly, some countries are trying to protect their interests by distorting the meaning of terminologies in these theories.

In other words, in the utilization of transboundary rivers, the upper riparians may consider only their national interest while the lower riparians, on the other hand, exert their utmost effort to keep their interest. To this end, the lower riparians may use amicable negotiation (soft diplomacy) or may wage war (hard diplomacy) against the upper riparian countries.



Shimelis ArayaMarch 15, 20211479

The negative impact on African economies of the COVID-19 pandemic was easily evidenced by the shrinking real GDP of all countries, according to reports released from international organizations. Reports further demonstrated that the extent of the economic slowdown in most countries is linked to the level of integration to the global value-chain, particularly to trade and tourism. A drop in world demand leads to a decline in prices for many of the primary commodities. Specifically, the economic contraction is bigger for exporters of fuel and horticultures. This hugely affected production and export of all economies. African countries through the African Union (AU) are calling to the world’s creditors to reduce or cancel debt. The demand for debt reduction is mainly due to the pandemic that has a devastating effect on the continent’s economy.



Shimelis ArayaJuly 15, 20203444

Coronavirus disrupted the lives of billions across the world. From the superpowers with a huge economic hegemony to countries with less economic interaction with the rest of the world have been hit hard by the deadly virus. Both developed and least developed countries are likely to witness their worst economic recession in more than a decade. Big corporations and SMEs are reporting losses and cutting millions of jobs, exacerbating poverty and unemployment.



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