One of the major issues in international hydro-politics is the utilization of transboundary rivers. Although there are existing theories on the use of these bodies of water, they were not universally used in a uniform way. Accordingly, some countries are trying to protect their interests by distorting the meaning of terminologies in these theories.
In other words, in the utilization of transboundary rivers, the upper riparians may consider only their national interest while the lower riparians, on the other hand, exert their utmost effort to keep their interest. To this end, the lower riparians may use amicable negotiation (soft diplomacy) or may wage war (hard diplomacy) against the upper riparian countries.