Fertilizers Dysfunction: Nation Hopes on New Technology – Blended Featured

For the last twelve years in a raw, Mustafa Siraj, 39, a father of three has used fertilizers on his three hectares of farming land in order to increase the production of maize, a crop that he frequently harvests.

The place where Mustafa lives, Gomma Wereda, Jimma Zone in Oromia Region is well known for the production of maize crop and he is one of the well known growers in the area.

Before his father transferred the land use to him, the maximum production was eight to ten quintals of maize per hectare.

“My father did not allow me to use man made fertilizers and I have to do it behind his back because I was convinced for the importance of it when discussing with the people from agriculture office,” says Mustafa.

Later on, supported by the Development Agents (DAs), he used DAP and Urea fertilizers one quintal each for a hectare as recommended.

“The result was amazing,” he says. “I have gained up to 70 quintals from a hectare.”

However, such remarkable result could not continue forever since he frequently uses the same kinds of fertilizers on the same farming land.

In the last farming season Mustafa has harvested 55 quintal of maize from a hectare, a continuing decline for the last five years.

“I have used improved seed, chemicals and the necessary supports for the crop and I do not know why the decline of the quantity of the production?” he wonders.

Tadesse Akalu, a father of five, in Adulala Kebele in East Shoa Zone also shares the worries of Mustafa. The dramatic result he has seen from the two hectares of land ten years ago by using DAP and Urea fertilizers is quite different for a hectare of land farm in the recent years.

“It is declining,” he confirms.

Ethiopian farmers primarily rely on only two fertilizers to supplement the nutrient content in their soil, phosphorus in the form of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and nitrogen in the form of Urea. A standard application of 100kg of DAP and 100kg of Urea has traditionally been recommended across the country for all kinds of soil types.  

“This recommendation fails to take into account the current fertility status of soil, or specific crop needs,” Tefera Solomon, soil fertility case team coordinator at Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) told EBR. “Since only DAP and Urea fertilizers are commercially available, their positive effect of stimulating crop growth also decrease the natural soil fertility and level of essential nutrients not supported by fertilization.”

According to a study conducted by The Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA) in 2012, fertilizer was first introduced to Ethiopia under the freedom from Hunger program of the FAO in the late 1960s. Despite successful field demonstrations and several deliberate policy attempts to increase use of fertilizer in the late 1970s and early 1980s, fertilizer application levels remained very low. At the national level, total imports of fertilizer increased from about 3,500 tons in the early 1970s to 34,000 tons in 1985/86.

With the introduction of the Peasant Agricultural Development Program (PADEP) in 1986, increasing numbers of farmers started using fertilizer and total imports reached about 145,000 tons by the time the central planning regime of the Derg collapsed in 1991. Since 1992, there have been a number of policy shifts that have shaped and re-shaped fertilizer supply in the country.

Thereafter, according to this study, fertilizer use increased to about 200 thousand tons in 1994, to 400 thousand tons in 2005, and 550 thousand tons in 2010.

However, the efficiency of using fertilizer is becoming less important for the farmers like Mustafa who recognize the low production in the recent years.

“Production is becoming low as it was in the past, I think using fertilizer will be only wasting time and money in near future,” says the frustrated Mustafa.   

The study also shows that the fertilizer use in different regions is declining. Relative  to  the  expansion  in  cultivated  area,  in  most  regions  the proportions  of  land  under  fertilizer  use  has  declined  between  2000/01  and  2010/11. For example, in the case of maize in Oromia, almost 383,000 hectare (44 percent of the total area in maize of 871,000 ha) were fertilized in 2000/01. However, in 2010/11, while the total area under maize had almost tripled to 1.11 million ha, only 22.5 percent (or about 243,000 ha) of this area received fertilizer.

An official from MoA attributes the problem to the technology of the fertilizers used currently.

“The Ethiopian soil is losing its nutrients because the farmers are obliged to use only DAP and Urea fertilizers which are common in the country for long time,” Tefera explains. “These two kinds of fertilizers are used for all kind of crops and all kinds of soil,” he added.

DAP has phosphate and it is advised to apply it at planting as basal fertilizer and Urea is a Nitrogenous fertilizer that should be used for top dressing  like when maize plants are keen high.

According to an expert on the field, the soil in most parts of the country need about 16 kinds of nutrients. In addition to that, DAP naturally adds acidity to the soil.

“These fertilizers have to be changed with technologically advanced fertilizers that add nutrients to the soil,” Tefera says.

Following a serious of research on the issue, currently MoA in collaboration with ATA is working on a national fertilizer blending program.

Blended fertilizers are made by physically mixing fertilizer materials to gate a desired grade. It is mixing through simultaneous or sequential application, of any combination of materials to produce a uniform mixture of one or more filler materials or two or more fertilizer materials.

This project is aimed at popularizing new high-yield blended fertilizers and to create the country’s first blended fertilizer production facilities.

There are four blending plants under construction, one in each of the four main agricultural regions: Oromia, Amhara, Tigray and Southern Regions. Each of the plants will be operated by a farmers’ cooperative union, including Enderta in Tigray, Merkeb in Amhara, Becho in Oromia, and Melek in Southern Region. Each factories cost 12 million birr.

These four plants, which will have a cumulative production capacity of nearly 250,000 ton a year, are expected to start producing fertilizers in time for the 2014 planting season.

The plants will make an expanded range of soil nutrients available to farmers, customized to their specific soil types, crops, and agro-ecologies.

Agriculture dominates the Ethiopian economy. It is the major supplier of raw materials to food processing, beverage and textile industries. It accounts for more than 85 percent of the labor force and 90 percent of the export earnings, according to data from ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MOFED). The major share of GDP growth can also be attributed to agriculture.

Ethiopia’s crop yields have been constrained by a very limited set of imported fertilizers. However, by blending fertilizers here in Ethiopia, it is expected that smallholder farmers will not only have access to an expanded range of soil nutrients; they will also be able to request custom blended formulas tailored to their specific soil needs.

According to the data from Ethiopian Agricultural Inputs Supply Enterprise (AISE), in the year 2011, 350,309 ton of Dap and 200,345 ton of Urea were distributed to farmers. For the 2012 cropping season, the enterprise has availed 401,871 ton of Dap and 233,526 ton of Urea.

It is also projected that the new fertilizer blending factories will contribute for the reduction of the amount of high volume of fertilizer imported each year.

The new project will use geo statistical soil fertility mapping of agricultural land in the country to recommend relevant fertilizer applications for each Woreda.

During the 2014 planting season, the effectiveness of these blended fertilizers will be demonstrated at 2,000 farmer training centers and on 30,000 farmers’ plots, according to Tefera.

As the blending plants are being constructed and prepared for production in 2014, a technical committee, comprised of experts from the MoA, the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research and the regional agricultural research institutes have developed customized fertilizer formulas to be tested on Ethiopia’s soil.

For demonstrating the project on the selected farmers’ plot, 216,000 metric tons of blended fertilizer is already imported with the cost of 172,800 dollars.

“Producing the blended fertilizer will also helps to save the country’s foreign currency and also easily accessible for farmers in their local areas,” he said.

The blending fertilizer will contain the six major components that the soil should be compensated such as Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Boron, Zinc, Sulpher and Potassium.  These components are available in the country except Phosphorus which is expected to be imported from Tanzania, according to an official from the Ministry.

However, Eyasu Elias, (PhD), president of soil science association, argue that such a move could have been made years ago when farmers have been refusing to use the same kind of fertilizers on their land.

“The farmers have been losing their money and time for many years,” he told EBR.

He also criticizes the previous policy that enables to distribute the same kind of fertilizers from Mekele to Moyale and Gambela to Affar regions which have diverse ecological set up.

“Since agriculture has a major role on the economy of the country, issues raised by the farmers or any other concerned body should have been given due attention,” he recommends, appreciating the current move on the policy cycle.

Ethiopia also envisions building eight fertilizer plants in the Oromia Regional state as per its governing five-year economic plan, the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP), which ends in 2015. Out of the envisaged fertilizer producing plants planned to be constructed in Oromia, five are for Dap and the rest are for Urea.

Until then, farmers like Mustafa and Tadesse should wait and see what change the coming cropping season will bring to them.

Yetneberk Tadele

EBR Staff Writter.

63 comments

  • Peterlep

    get a prescription for viagra
    generic viagra online
    generic viagra rite aid
    viagra generic
    how to get viagra in the us

    Peterlep Friday, 18 August 2017 10:28 Comment Link
  • Ventura IT

    Beam: a road or mountain bike helmet with large vents, blocky lines and a normally compactshape with only the suggestion of a rear point.

    Ventura IT Tuesday, 08 August 2017 03:44 Comment Link
  • StantonTes

    buy cialis online
    tadalafil 20 mg
    buy genuine cialis
    cialis 20 mg
    buy cialis with prescription

    StantonTes Friday, 04 August 2017 23:56 Comment Link
  • MerlinSmone
  • MerlinSmone

    Adidas Js Wings
    If you feel your diet demands enhancement depending on what you've just study, I desire you to take action now. Diet is critical for improving physical and mental effectively-becoming and assisting you guide a more healthy, happier existence. Utilize the recommendation from this post right now to get on the path to a more content, healthier you.It Is Possible To Require A Well-Skilled Canine Anywhere



    A classic-fashioned, but but vital element for your own home company, is to find quality business card printing. These are generally nonetheless the best way to spread your own name to potential clients and companions. You can also depart them in places that other folks might find them. Get a smooth accomplish, and make sure that you don't attempt to fit excessive written text on them.

    MerlinSmone Tuesday, 25 July 2017 20:05 Comment Link
  • JamesIlles
  • cheapest canadian pharmacy cialis

    cialis sale sydney
    cialis buy cheap
    can cialis pills cut half
    cheapest place to buy cialis online
    afgan pills cialis index

    cheapest canadian pharmacy cialis Wednesday, 12 July 2017 23:12 Comment Link
  • CurtisApex
  • ScottDut
  • Alvinjes

    ray ban homme lunette de soleil
    ray ban pour alain afflelou
    oakley vetement de ski
    ray ban vue enfant
    ray ban aviator large métal rb3025
    lunette soleil masque ray ban
    ray ban solaire avec correction
    vente lunettes soleil ray ban
    revendeur oakley suisse
    ray ban aviators gold mirror polarized
    lunette ray ban clubmaster de vue
    masque de ski oakley elevate
    ray ban lunette de soleil homme 2015
    lunettes oakley cyclisme occasion
    changer verres oakley radar
    t shirt oakley femme
    essayer lunettes de vue ray ban en ligne
    oakley vetement snow
    lunette de vue ray ban femme
    oakley store paris fermé
    ray ban jackie ohh 710
    ray ban jackie ohh ii pas cher
    monture lunette de vue homme ray ban
    ray ban polarized
    ray ban prix 2015
    lunette de vue ray ban toulouse
    oakley airwave promo
    ray ban 2015 homme
    ecran oakley
    oakley lunettes de soleil homme
    ray ban rivoli
    prix lunette ray ban maroc
    ray ban 3183 polarisé
    ray ban rb3025 prix maroc
    oakley dispatch
    lunette ray ban effet miroir
    lunette de vue imitation ray ban
    verre ray ban aviator cassé
    ray ban junior wayfarer sunglass hut
    faux ray ban wayfarer
    ray ban clubmaster violet
    lunette ray ban miroir prix
    solde lunette oakley
    lunette ray ban pour homme
    lunette de vue ray ban femme marron
    ray ban wayfarer noir mat homme
    vente privee lunette oakley
    lunettes de soleil oakley five squared blanche
    oakley en belgique
    ray ban cats 5000 a vendre tunisie
    masque de ski oakley mauvais temps
    lunet ray ban 2015
    masque ski oakley airwave
    ray ban new wayfarer rb2132 ecaille
    lunettes de vue oakley paris
    tee shirt oakley femme
    acheter autocollant oakley
    masque ski oakley high tech
    ray ban p prix
    oakley promotion eyeglasses
    lunette ray ban 3211
    fake ray ban wayfarer ebay
    lunette de vue ray ban enfant
    lunette ray ban rb3321
    ski oakley sunglasses
    lunette de soleil ray ban wayfarer pas cher
    ray ban wayfarer mirror black
    ray ban polarisé homme
    lunette ray ban a vendre
    ray ban aviator homme effet miroir
    oakley paris
    lunettes de soleil ray ban blanche
    lunette solaire ray ban femme
    lunette ray ban pilote
    ray ban vente privée
    ray ban jackie
    prix lunette de vue ray ban femme
    ray ban usa official site
    acheter des ray ban aux usa
    acheter lunettes ray ban en ligne
    bermuda oakley solde
    prix monture ray ban aviator
    solaires ray ban femme
    sac oakley bathroom
    fausse ray ban achat
    oakley lunette de vue canada
    ray ban enfant pas cher
    vetements oakley pas cher
    optic center ray ban
    lunettes oakley strasbourg
    ray ban wayfarer contrefaçon
    lunettes de soleil ray ban aviator miroir
    ray ban pour
    boutique ray ban maroc
    ray ban berlin shop
    ray-ban 2140 wayfarer bicolore
    site de fausse ray ban
    ray ban 4125 cats 5000 polarized
    lunettes de ski oakley
    lunettes ray ban enfants
    lunette de soleil ray ban moins cher
    grossiste ray ban
    ray ban aviator rose lens
    lunette de soleil ray ban tunisie
    lunettes de soleil homme ray ban aviator
    lunettes oakley pour le sport
    ray-ban 2140 wayfarer noir mat 901s
    lynx optique oakley
    ray ban pour enfants
    lunette ray ban wayfarer tunisie annonce
    ray ban 4101 polarisé
    prix ray ban effet miroir
    oakley loeb homme
    lunettes ray ban vue pas cher
    chaussures oakley france
    chaussures oakley femme
    ray ban cokpit
    lunette soleil ray ban monture carbone
    ray ban aviator miroir femme pas cher
    fausse ray ban acheter
    destockage vetement oakley
    ray ban optical
    site ray ban anglais
    masque ray ban pas cher
    lunettes ray ban wayfarer solaire
    lunettes de soleil homme imitation ray ban
    prix monture ray ban optic 2000
    magasin de lunette ray ban belgique
    ray ban violet wayfarer
    oakley moto cross
    site ray ban brasil
    oakley fives
    fake ray ban sunglasses
    ray ban 3183 polarised sunglasses
    ray ban essayage en ligne
    lunettes de soleil ray ban polarise
    solde oakley radar
    lunettes de vue internet oakley
    taille ray ban justin
    prix ray ban aviator en france
    ray ban aviator 3025 occasion
    revendeur ray ban montreal
    lunettes vue oakley prix
    ray ban cats 5000 homme ou femme
    lunettes ray ban aviator
    verre oakley racing jacket
    masque oakley ski apple
    lunettes de soleil ray ban rose pas cher
    lunette de vue oakley servo
    acheter lunettes oakley paris
    ray ban solaire pliable
    dimension lunette ray ban junior
    ray ban aviator medium
    ray ban cockpit aviator
    ray ban aviator 3025 precio argentina
    ray ban erika homme
    wayfarer ray ban 2132
    nouvelle ray ban carbone
    achat ray ban wayfarer
    guide des tailles ray ban
    prix lunette de soleil ray ban
    ray ban wayfarer femme pas cher
    lunettes oakley soldes
    masque oakley polarisé
    tester des ray-ban en ligne
    reconnaitre vrai fausse ray ban
    lunette soleil ray ban 2015
    ray ban pas cher new york
    lunette ray ban monture doré
    lunettes de vue ray ban junior
    casque oakley superlight
    ray ban couleur ecaille
    lunette oakley prix discount
    ray ban aviator monture plastique
    ray ban de vue femme afflelou
    lunette de ski oakley femme
    ray ban moins cher aux usa
    afflelou montures ray ban
    verre de rechange masque oakley
    ray ban lunettes de soleil homme
    achat lunette ray ban
    lunettes de soleil ray ban pas cher
    ray ban rb4101 jackie ohh 71951
    ray ban wayfarer noir occasion
    oakley lunette de velo
    lunette ray ban femme de vue afflelou
    verres pour oakley jawbone
    lunette ray ban junior
    t shirt manches longues oakley
    oakley rue du commerce
    lunettes de soleil ray ban carbon fibre
    ray ban aviator matte gold
    opticien ray ban dijon
    oakley sac de voyage
    sac oakley brasil
    lunettes oakley radar pitch
    ray ban frames only
    oakley motorcycle sunglasses
    ray ban lunette soleil
    ray ban enfant rose
    modele lunette ray ban homme
    ray ban aviator mirror black
    ray ban wayfarer rouge et noir
    chaussure intervention oakley pas cher
    ray ban police miroir
    ray ban wayfarer optic 2000
    chaussures oakley pas cher
    monture ray ban femme rouge
    maillot oakley vtt
    ray ban wayfarer 2140 blanche
    ray ban carbon fibre aviator
    opticien oakley
    ray ban wayfarer bleu ciel
    masque oakley crowbar pas cher
    lunette ray ban aviator cdiscount
    ray ban lunettes vue
    oakley lunettes de vue titane
    ray ban aviator mercadolibre argentina
    ray ban aviator sizes
    solaire oakley a la vue
    lunettes ray ban femme soldes
    lunette ray ban boutique en ligne
    ray ban verre polarisé
    solaire ray ban junior
    ray ban wayfarer homme prix
    ray ban aviator homme miroir
    lunette oakley paris
    avis ray ban new wayfarer
    lunette de soleil ray ban pour homme
    ray ban soldes france
    lunette de soleil oakley avis
    verre oakley radar xl
    grand optical oakley
    ray ban aviator mirror blue
    ray ban wayfarer achat en ligne
    taille ray ban aviator
    lunette ray ban
    prix lunettes ray ban femme
    immitation ray ban
    monture lunette de vue ray ban homme
    lunette de soleil pas cher femme ray ban
    ray ban wayfarer beige
    lunette de soleil pas cher oakley
    revendeur lunette oakley
    lunette oakley velo pas cher
    oakley velocious
    differencier vrai ray ban et contrefacon
    ray ban aviator silver
    oakley ski helmets
    lunette oakley pour vtt
    lunettes solaires oakley homme
    accessoires vélo oakley
    verres de remplacement oakley gascan
    vente oakley 14 octobre 2015
    ray ban wayfarer mirrored lens
    soldes oakley jupiter squared
    ray ban wayfarer femme
    ray ban bleu electrique
    ray ban cockpit carbone polarisé
    lunette solaire ray ban aviator
    oakley official site canada
    vente privee lunette soleil ray ban
    masque oakley promotion
    ray soleil aviator
    official site oakley military government sales
    lunette de soleil oakley dispatch 2
    lunette solaire ray ban homme
    lunette de soleil ray ban femme rose
    lunettes oakley gascan pas cher
    accessoire oakley split jacket
    oakley shop france
    ray ban aviator 3025 marron doré
    acheter ray ban en ligne
    ray ban de vue femme pas cher
    attache lunette oakley
    ray ban pilote noire
    ray ban new wayfarer 2132 pas cher
    ray ban jaune fluo
    ray ban wayfarer couleurs
    prix des lunettes ray ban au maroc
    ray ban 3025 aviator large metal 01451
    ray ban solaires de vue
    lunette soleil ray ban carbone
    ecran masque oakley ambush
    vélos vélo oakley
    lunette ray ban femme clubmaster
    solaires ray ban 2015
    ray ban aviator prix algerie
    comparatif masque de ski oakley
    lunettes de vue oakley ducati
    lunette de soleil oakley frogskins
    etuis ray ban aviator
    ray ban new wayfarer lunettes soleil mixte
    lunettes de soleil bebe oakley
    ray ban wayfarer pas cher de vue
    lunettes soleil ray ban wayfarer
    lunette de soleil femme imitation ray ban
    lunettes ray ban aviator silver mirror
    lunettes de soleil ray ban wayfarer 2132
    etui lunettes pour ray ban mode
    lunette de soleil oakley homme
    ecran masque oakley o frame
    ray ban aviator rose
    lunette soleil ray ban aviator small
    solaire ray ban wayfarer
    ray ban wayfarer wiki
    lunette oakley frogskins pas cher
    oakley etui pour masque de ski
    lunettes solaires oakley femme
    lunette oakley transistor
    cats 5000 ray ban ebay
    masque ski snow oakley
    ray ban aviator monture noir
    masque oakley ambush
    portefeuille oakley homme
    taille m ray ban aviator
    jackie o ray ban
    masque de cross oakley
    pub ray ban
    oakley a frame masque
    lunettes oakley aaa pas cher
    lunette soleil oakley carbone
    lunettes de soleil ray ban prix discount
    ray ban de vue interieur blanc
    cats ray ban amazon
    ray-ban rb4126 cats 1000 sunglasses
    lunette de ski oakley sport expert
    verre ray ban replacement
    ray ban polarisante homme
    oakley personnaliser
    lunette soleil oakley alonso
    lunette ray ban aviator blanche
    oakley lunettes sport
    ray ban pilote femme pas cher
    blouson oakley
    accessoire oakley jawbone
    magasin oakley a paris
    lunettes de soleil ray ban justin
    lunettes de soleil ray ban verres miroirs
    manchon lunette oakley jawbone
    comment changer verres oakley radar
    sac à dos oakley arsenal
    ray ban wayfarer pliante prix
    vetement oakley ski
    lunette ray ban soleil prix
    ray ban aviator miroir orange
    oakley optical
    ray ban lunette de vue canada
    magasin lunette ray ban paris
    lunettes de soleil ray ban prix
    Related Articles

    Alvinjes Saturday, 24 June 2017 05:57 Comment Link

Leave a comment

Make sure you enter the (*) required information where indicated.Basic HTML code is allowed.

Latest News

Ethiopia to Host the 4th International Coffee Conference

Ethiopia to Host the 4th International Coffee Conference

Ethiopia is set to host the 4th International Coffee Conference from March 6 – 8, 2016 in Addis Ababa at the United Nations Conference Center. Previous conferences were held  in England in 2001, Brazil in 2005 and Guatemala in 2010. Read more

Most Popular

  • 1
  • 2
Prev Next

The White-Box of Ethiopian Agriculture

The agricultural sector remains our Achilles heel, nonetheless, we remain convinced that agricultural-based development remains the only source of hope ...

Read more

For Whoever Has, to Him Shall be Given …

As the Ethiopian government seeks to transform the economy into one that’s rooted in manufacturing, the simplicity for local investors to access finance...

Read more

Commentary

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
Prev Next

Shooting in the Dark: The Anomalies of Headhunting

The war for ‘heads’ – also known as talent – has been raging for many years and the manner headhunters ‘poach’ people is getting tougher ...

Read more

Understanding Chinese Investment in Ethiopia A Critical Evaluation of the World Bank’s “Chinese FDI in Ethiopia” Survey

The World Bank country office in Ethiopia, apparently in response to the request by the government of Ethiopia, has conducted a survey of...

Read more

Mitigating Growing Income Inequality: What Needs to Be Done

Rising income and wealth inequality in many countries around the world has been a long-term trend for three decades or more. But the atte...

Read more

View Point

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
Prev Next

Delivering Life Insurance: The Untapped Market in Ethiopia

Modern insurance transaction in Ethiopia was started by an Egyptian Bank in 1905. According to Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce there were 19, 33 and 40 insuran...

Read more

Headache When a Key Personnel leaves a Company in the Financial Sector

The financial sector in Ethiopia has undergone considerable changes in recent decades. The dramatic rise of new market players into the sector has vividly al...

Read more

Women and the World Economy

In many countries, public debate about gender equality focuses mainly on women’s access to top positions and high-powered career opportunities. But the “glas...

Read more